Business plan to help. How to write a business manual

The business plan consists of sections on different aspects of planning. there will be a title page, content and summary.

A business plan is a clear program of actions for an enterprise, designed for a certain period. Such a document is needed not only to impress investors but also to come up with development strategies, anticipate market risks and better understand your own business. A single structure of the business plan will allow you to detect flaws in planning that are easy to miss individually. We offer instructions on how to draw up a document on your own, and with its help gain a foothold in the market.

The business plan consists of sections on different aspects of planning. In the finished version, at the beginning of the document, there will be a title page, content and summary. However, they are always written and designed last.

Section 1
About company

In this section write down:

  • the organizational and legal form of the enterprise;

  • names of managers and business owners and their contribution to the project;

  • location and equipment of the enterprise;

  • current financial performance and necessary investments.

If the business plan is written by the owner of a new business, the financial figures will reflect current and future costs. If we are talking about an existing business, this paragraph of the business plan should include information on revenue for the last 2-3 years (or a shorter period if the business is less than a year old), gross and net profit, and operating expenses, balance sheet.

When listing business owners, describe contributions of any kind: ideas, software development, knowledge of secret manufacturing techniques. But non-monetary assets must be valued in monetary terms. Let the assessment be not the most accurate, but sober.

When talking about the location of the enterprise, give a description of the area where each of the objects is located (warehouse, office, shop, office, etc.): who lives in this area, how far is it from the city center, what kind of infrastructure is there. Let us know how the rooms are equipped with everything you need and plan what you can improve in the future.

Section 2
Industry and market analysis

It is difficult to become successful in the market without knowing how it works. Before writing a business plan, do your research and gather as much information as you can about the industry in general and your niche in particular. The All-US classifier of activities, the websites of state statistics bodies, thematic media and Internet portals will help with this.

In this section describe:

  • a brief history of the industry, taking into account local specifics;

  • factors affecting the growth of the industry;

  • categories of products and services, buyers and suppliers;

  • direct competitors and industry leaders;

  • main trends;

  • the volume of the industry in monetary terms;

  • industry-specific marketing strategies.

To analyze the market and the niche in which you opened a business, apply the same methods of analysis, only narrowing the scope. Find a business similar to yours in your city or region. Ask potential customers who provides them with similar services and how often they use them, and then record the results in a business plan.

As a result, select the target audience segment and try to predict its growth.

Section 3
Product and business model

The product is the heart of a business idea, and writing this section will help refine it. Tell the reader of the business plan the following:

  • what you make or sell;

  • what are the features of the product or service;

  • what benefits it promises to the consumer;

  • what is the path of the product to the customer from each segment;

  • what is the planned income from each segment;

  • what kind of infrastructure is needed.

Formulate the value of your offer for the client and compare the business with competitors. Describe the cycle a product goes through before it “finds” a consumer, and how the paths differ for different audience segments. Anticipate how technology developments can affect the product life cycle and come up with a new proposal for the future.

Section 4
Production plan

This section answers the question of what it takes to get a product to market. The production plan should reflect everything related to the capacity of the enterprise, the prices for raw materials and materials, and the necessary labour resources, namely:

  • production conditions and equipment characteristics;

  • production cost;

  • list of suppliers of raw materials and contractors;

  • production volumes;

  • logistics and shipping costs;

  • staff qualification requirements.


The forecast of prices for resources is especially important, because the cost of goods directly depends on them and indirectly, on production volumes.

Section 5
The organizational structure of the enterprise

Even if you work alone, this section is still needed: as the enterprise grows, contractors, logistics services, and partners will appear in the structure of the business model. All human resources that the development of the business will require must be recorded in the organizational plan. Describe here:

  • company hierarchy;

  • areas of responsibility of employees;

  • composition of the management team and its weaknesses;

  • staff categories and payroll costs.



It is better to present this data in the form of a diagram or diagram so that the functions of officials and the composition of the management team are clear. Describe the potential of managers and identify points of professional growth for each. Do not forget that the inability to delegate a task to a qualified specialist is also a weakness of the team. List how many employees work in each position and plan your payroll costs to account for salary increases and headcount increases.

Section 6
Marketing strategy

Marketing is responsible for attracting customers. When setting marketing goals, start from the goals of the business. Let's say the overall goal is to increase profits by 15%. Consider how marketing can help with this.

What should be included in the section:

  • brief description of the target audience;

  • assessment of the solvency of the target audience;

  • competitive advantages of the product;

  • pricing strategy;

  • advertising tactics.

Try to evaluate the competitive advantages of the product from the point of view of the client, and develop a pricing strategy based on data about the target audience. Use only those advertising channels that are suitable for the product. For example, you can advertise dermatological services on social networks using before and after photos, but whether this will attract a client is a question.

From theory, move on to practice: plan specific actions and include this item in the budget.

Section 7
Sales strategy

The sales strategy should be based on numbers and the real situation in the market. For example, it will not be possible to increase sales by 70% if the average growth rate for the industry is 12% (by the way, you also need to know it). Record here:

  • number of customers in the segment;

  • monthly direct sales costs;

  • income from each product line;

  • sales tactics.

The number of customers in the segment will help determine the maximum sales that are physically possible. Select sales tactics in accordance with the sales funnel - the path that the client will go from being interested in the product to buying.

As in the case of a marketing strategy, plan specific actions and budget for the necessary costs.

Section 8
Financial plan

It is the financial plan that determines the viability of a business idea in an economic sense. Looking at this section, the investor will decide whether he is ready to invest in the project, and the novice entrepreneur - whether it is worth opening this business. What do you need to describe in a financial plan:

  • sources of financing;

  • the volume of sales;

  • payment schedule;

  • direct and indirect costs;

  • cash flow analysis;

  • net profit and ROI point - profitability threshold.

Include all costs in this section: fixed costs, for example, for renting a room, and variable costs, for raw materials, etc. Forecast revenue, net income and gross margin - the percentage difference between revenue and total cost of sales. Present in the form of a graph the data of the monthly analysis of cash flows: how much you have to pay suppliers and for rent, how many products you can sell, how much you need to pay for raw materials, and how much will go to wages. Keep in mind that cash flows reflect the inflow and outflow of real money in circulation,

Section 9
Risk assessment

Accounting for negative scenarios is also an important part of planning. In this section, list the typical risk factors, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the company itself, and develop strategies for when undesirable developments occur. Description:

  • internal and external risks;

  • risk indicators;

  • action program for each indicator.

Risks are unstable, so when the market situation changes, they need to be reviewed again. Identify specific risk areas (in terms of sales channels, partners, consumers, etc.). Then set risk indicators - indicators that will tell you that the situation is getting out of control.

For example, a delay in the supply of raw materials for 2 days is not critical. In this case, the beginning of the 3rd day of delay will be a marker that it is time to take action. Think about the actions that you will take as soon as each of the risk indicators “lights up”. It is desirable that the team has a person responsible for monitoring risks and revising the measures taken.

The content will allow the reader to navigate the structure of the business plan. Include in it the titles of all sections with indications of the corresponding pages.

A summary is a summary of all sections of a business plan. If you are showing a resume to an investor, including financial figures, charts, and other visual information in this section that will indicate the financial prospects of the business and the essence of the business idea. Here's what a resume should contain:

  • a brief history of the business;

  • description of the business idea and product;

  • a brief portrait of the target audience;

  • company goals and mission;

  • key business indicators.

The new business will not have business indicators, instead of them you need to indicate upcoming costs, the amount of own and loan funds and the payback period. An existing business should reflect in the resume the amount of revenue and net profit for the last 2-3 years, as well as other indicators that illustrate financial stability. Or instability, if the purpose of the business plan is to improve the position of the company.

Include here a chart of sales forecast and cash flow analysis, a few insights from market and industry analysis, and anti-risk strategies. Be sure to express your goals in numbers or other measurable indicators. For example, annual income - is 15 million dollars. State the mission of the company concisely. It should express the reason for the existence of the business and the nature of interaction with consumers and society.

The title page is the “face” of the business plan, the first thing an investor will see. Working on the title page can be an occasion to develop a logo and overall graphic style, as well as a slogan and a more memorable name.

The ideal business plan cover page contains:

  • name, logo and slogan of the company;

  • type of activity (the essence of the project);

  • company contact details;

  • project start date and timing;

  • the name of the author of the business plan.

Be sure to also indicate the name of the document: "Business Plan". If the business is new, then it can be a “business plan for creating and organizing activities”, and if the business already exists, simply “organizing activities”. Usually, on the title page they make a note: “Strictly confidential. Please return if you are not interested in the project” and put the date the document was created.

As soon as you transform the data into a visual form, conclusions about the dynamics and patterns of business processes will begin to suggest themselves.

Any indicators, current or future, must be measurable. If you are not strong in mathematics, entrust the analysis to a specialist - it's worth it.

If the business plan covers a period of several years, make a monthly forecast for the first year, a quarterly forecast for the second, and an annual forecast for subsequent ones.

Let the development be slower but sure.

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Business plan to help. How to write a business manual
The business plan consists of sections on different aspects of planning. there will be a title page, content and summary.
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