What programming language to learn right now: 9 most popular

  What programming language to learn right now: 9 most popular People have come up with more than 8 thousand programming languages. Their po...

 

What programming language to learn right now: 9 most popular

People have come up with more than 8 thousand programming languages. Their popularity changes every year, and the requirements for entering the profession are lower and lower. We understand what languages ​​are in demand, why they are needed and how to teach them to non-programmers

The most popular programming languages

A programming language is a set of lexical, syntactic, and semantic rules that people have come up with to create programs. You can learn a language to an elementary level in 6-10 months, but if you make the wrong choice, the language may become outdated, and you will lose time and money.

To track the demand for programming languages, companies make special ratings. Digital creativity and programming for children, has chosen languages ​​that rank high in the TIOBE and IEEE ratings. The first rating includes the languages ​​in which the most lines of code are written, for the second one use a little more criteria. For example, popularity on job search sites, mentions in services for programmers and on social networks.

Most popular programming languages:

  1. Python

  2. C

  3. Java

  4. C++

  5. C#

  6. JavaScript

  7. PHP

  8. R

  9. Arduino

TIOBE ranking, February 2022

TIOBE ranking, February 2022

Is it worth learning to program in Python?

Python is a logical and relatively simple language with a minimalistic syntax. It has a small set of ground rules, and the language is easy to read and easy to write. Developers have written many libraries for Python, so you can use ready-made solutions in your projects. The main disadvantage of Python is its low speed. Programs in it will work on average more slowly than in other languages.

In October 2021, Python became the most popular programming language, overtaking Java and C from the top spot.

Igor Muzykin, Head of Programming at Skillbox:

“The main reason for the steady growth in requests for Python is the growing demand for IT specialties to reorient careers in the field of development. Imagine a person who is thinking about the first steps in IT. To begin with, he will most likely start looking for information on the Internet. What will he see? Arguments about the relative simplicity of Python for beginners and articles about the wide scope of the language - from research work to game development. Therefore, Python is increasingly being chosen as the first programming language to learn.

Concise syntax plays in favour of Python's simplicity. For example, blocks of code are separated by indents rather than brackets, which reduces the number of lines and characters. There are also syntactic constructions, the introduction of which allows all the routine tasks of managing memory and threads to be given to the Python interpreter instead of additional code. Due to this, the developer can focus on tasks, and not on the code itself.

Despite criticism of certain aspects of how Python works, such as the slow speed of programs and the dependence of the language on system libraries, in the coming years, it will continue to strengthen its leadership position in web development, machine learning, testing and DevOps.

Where is used? Most often, servers are created in Python, they process data and develop neural networks. After learning Python, you can work as a back-end developer or a developer in the field of data science. Using Python, you can “attach” non-obvious functions to programs - this is its main convenience. For example, create a neural network to determine the degree of lung damage, and at the same time view CT images in the same program.

How much do programmers get paid? A developer in a large company in Moscow who knows Python earns from ₽100 thousand to ₽250 thousand. At the same time, the demand for data science developers is growing, so you can count on even higher pay.

Why study. Using Python, you can create a bot for instant messengers or social networks. Or write a program for parsing - searching and transferring information from different sites into one document. Such a program will be useful to designers and journalists.

Marina Arkhiptseva, Data Science course mentor at SkillFactory, ETL developer:

“If you follow the TIOBE index, then we will see that the leader changes from month to month, but the top three remain unchanged - Python, Java, C. That is why it is not so interesting to follow the monthly rating, and what is more interesting is the same TIOBE except for the monthly rating selects Language of the Year annually, and Python has received this honour 5 times since 2003 (including 2021). This is the best indicator among all programming languages. Why is Python growing in popularity every year?

First, there is active growth in the field of Data Science. If we analyze, for example, HeadHunter, we will find many open vacancies in this area. Companies are looking for data engineers, data scientists, data analysts, big data specialists, and MLops. The competition is strong, but the demand still exceeds the supply in the market. In 2012, the Harvard Business Review published "Data Scientist: The Sexiest Job of the 21st Century", which named data science the sexiest job of the 21st century, and interest in the field seems to have only grown since then. And just Python is the main tool of the data scientist. Secondly, Python has an extensive community - almost with a 100% probability there is an answer to any question on StackOverflow, the main thing is to formulate it correctly.

Third, Python is a language for all ages. Children write games on it, create worlds in Minecraft and take the exam in computer science. Adult specialists, in addition to data processing, write a backend in Python and solve many applied problems.

Of course, Python is not an ideal language and not a panacea for everything, but the main trend in the world of programming is perfectly illustrated by the internal Google motto: "Use Python where we can, C++ where we must." This means the following: C++ is optimal for developing applications where speed is important. You have to pay for this with a high entry threshold and the complexity of the language itself. Therefore, where speed is not critical, Google prefers to use Python.

Should You Learn C Programming?

C is one of the oldest and most popular programming languages. It is "light" and fast, so it is used where high performance is needed. For example, to create drivers, operating systems or software for microcontrollers. At the same time, C is difficult to learn - you have to write a lot from scratch. If you compare programming languages ​​with cars, then C is a racing car, uncomfortable on city roads, but very fast.

Where is used? C is used to create drivers, write operating system kernels, and write libraries for Python and other languages.

How much do programmers get paid? In Moscow, a C developer earns on average from ₽100,000 to ₽250,000. In other cities, salaries are lower - from ₽50,000 to ₽200,000.

Why study ordinary people. C is not a language in which you can easily write a smartphone application or a smart home program. But with it you can start learning programming languages. Learning is not easy, but if you do it, you will understand the principle of operation of almost all other languages.

Is it worth learning to program in Java?

Java is a cross-platform language with a large number of libraries and a large developer community. Cross-platform is the ability to write a program once and immediately use it on several operating systems: Windows, Linux and macOS. Thanks to the Java libraries, it is suitable for almost everything: working with graphics, and sound, and creating small games. And in a large community, a novice developer can easily find ready-made pieces of code for various tasks and answers to almost any questions.

Programmers use libraries to make programs faster. A library is a set of ready-made programs, objects, and functions for solving typical tasks.

Where is used? Java is the language for everything. It is used to write mobile applications for Android, and programs for microwave ovens and servers. The Kotlin language is increasingly being used to develop mobile applications. But Java has already written a lot of applications that will have to be maintained and updated.

How much do programmers get paid? The salaries of Java developers do not differ much from the usual salaries of programmers - from ₽100 thousand to ₽250 thousand in Moscow.

Why study. With Java, you can create a home server or mobile phone application. It will not be very easy, but you can kill two birds with one stone - make a program and at the same time learn a popular language.

Photo: Patricia de Melo Moreira / Bloomberg

Is it worth learning to program in C++?

C++ is a cross-platform language of the C family with advanced features.

A huge number of programmers write code on it, share libraries and templates, and answer questions from beginners.

Where is used? Most often, operating systems, drivers, and utilities are created in C++. They make popular desktop applications of the Adobe and Office series. Due to its high speed and performance, C++ is used to develop computer games. For example, the popular Unreal Engine is written on it.

The Unreal Engine was created in 1998. Epic Games continues to release games on it. For example, the popular game PUBG runs on Unreal Engine

How much do programmers get paid? In the regions, a C++ developer earns from ₽50,000 to ₽150,000, in Moscow — from ₽100,000 to ₽250,000. The salary depends not only on the city but also on the industry - you can earn more in-game development than in the development of system applications.

Why study. C++ is not well suited for solving simple "home" tasks, but it can be used to start learning languages ​​in order to understand their structure and principles. If you decide to study, be patient - with C++ the principle "hard to learn - easy to fight" fully works.

Should You Learn to Program in C#?

C# (C-sharp) is a language originally invented by Microsoft to create applications for Windows. It's an object-oriented language - it's harder to learn, but easier to use, such as writing the same code less. With C#, you can work with the WPF framework, which helps you create "beautiful" windowed applications. For example, the latest versions of MS Office.

Where is used? Most often, applications for Windows are written in C# and computer games are created. For example, the popular Unity engine runs on C#. In addition, it can be used to develop system applications and create libraries for C++.

How much do programmers get paid? In the regions, C# developers receive from ₽35,000 to ₽130,000 rubles, in Moscow — from ₽100,000 to ₽250,000.

Why study. Using C#, you can create a window application for Windows, such as a calculator or a small game. But learning it is more difficult than languages ​​for creating mobile applications.

Should You Learn JavaScript Programming?

JavaScript is a fast cross-platform language for web development. With the help of JavaScript code, the developer “tells” the page how it will react to user actions. Using JS, you can show information to the user without reloading the page - this is how drop-down menus, pop-up windows, and window keyboards work.

At the same time, JavaScript has its limitations - it allows you to make mistakes that are then difficult to detect. Therefore, it is rarely used to create complex software, such as server software.

Where is used? JS is used all the time for web development. It is convenient to create mobile and desktop applications that will work through the browser. For example, Notion, Discord, Visual Studio Code.

How much do programmers get paid? A JavaScript Developer in Moscow earns from $140,000 to $300,000

Why study. Using JS, you can create a simple site or a module for it that works with client requests. For example, an online calculator.

Should You Learn PHP Programming?

PHP is used in web development to create programs that run on the server and help process client requests. PHP is slowly losing popularity because servers can be built using other languages. But many previously created sites still work on PHP, for example, VKontakte.

Where is used? Using PHP, programs are created that run on the server and help send mail from the site and interact with databases. PHP facilitates the work of online stores - you can not create 1 thousand identical pages, but generate them automatically from the database at the request of the client.

How much do programmers get paid? In the regions, a PHP developer receives from ₽50,000 to ₽120,000 rubles, in Moscow companies - from ₽80,000 to ₽220,000.

Why study. With knowledge of PHP, it's easy to start a developer career. Such a developer will be able to find a job, even if he has little experience.

PHP developer jobs in Moscow on HeadHunter

Should You Learn to Program in R?

R is a language for data processing, statistics, and machine learning. R constantly competes with Python, it is more often used in scientific research.

R is free, it has great data processing capabilities and an unusual syntax that is more understandable to mathematicians, which is why it is popular in the academic environment.

Where is used? Most often, R is used to process data in scientific research. It creates neural networks.

How much do programmers get paid? Developers and data analysts using R earn between $100,000 and $200,000. The exact amount depends on the type of company - sometimes you can earn more in scientific projects that receive international grants.

Why study ordinary people. Not worth it.

Is it worth learning to program with Arduino?

Arduino is a simplified dialect of C++, which is used only for programs for Arduino controllers. But these controllers are used almost everywhere - from automatic irrigation devices to full-fledged smart home systems and various robots.

Arduino exists only in conjunction with controllers, so it is not always considered a full-fledged language. To work on it, you need to buy a special board, connect it to a computer and use special software to write a program for the controller. But you can write a program, but the controller in the desired device and immediately check how well it works.

Here's how a smart water system works on Arduino

Where is used? Specialists who know Arduino can work as electronic engineers and software developers for microcontrollers. Sometimes - in schools of robotics.

How much do programmers get paid? In Moscow, electronic engineers earn from ₽50 thousand to ₽120 thousand, teachers - from ₽30 thousand to ₽100 thousand.

Why study. Arduino is convenient for solving simple everyday tasks. It is easy to use at home and in the country - to create irrigation systems, fans, security systems, and systems for aquariums. With Arduino, you can develop the logical thinking of children - it is easy to understand the principle of operation of technical devices with it.

Which languages ​​are losing relevance

It's a dubious idea to study Perl in 2021, says Oksana Selendeeva, an IT entrepreneur and the ideological inspirer of the CODDY programming school for children. Perl is a programming language for system administration, web development, and games. Perl developers have a rather high salary - 150 thousand rubles. per month, but since 2017 there are almost no vacancies for such developers. It is better to pay attention to Python, they perform the same tasks on it.

Lose relevance and other languages: Fortran, Objective-C, Haskell, Visual Basic.

According to Stack Overflow, the most "scary" languages ​​in 2020 are VBA, Objective-C, Perl, Assembly, C. "Scary" means that most of the developers who currently write code in these programming languages ​​do not plan to continue working with them.

Rating of the most "terrible" programming languages ​​according to Stack Overflow

Rating of the most "terrible" programming languages​​according to Stack Overflow

General IT trends regardless of programming languages

The code becomes more readable. In recent years, more and more applications have been developed, including for mobile devices. Applications are becoming more complex in architecture, they need to be constantly updated and maintained - it is important that the code can be easily read and understood. The application can live for ten years. During this time, several developers will change, who will need to understand the code written by others. Therefore, it is important that the programs not only solve their problems but also be neatly and clearly written.

The popularity of mobile development and machine learning is growing. Mobile development has become commonplace in a few years. Many companies launch only mobile applications, not thinking about their browser and desktop versions. Because of this, mobile development standards are being developed more strongly. On the one hand, this complicates the work, on the other hand, it is beneficial for the community to teach newcomers these standards.

Machine learning has gone from being a curiosity to becoming an integral part of life – predicting and processing data too often helps in ordinary situations. There are more face recognition and voice-to-text applications.

You need to write code for all platforms. There are more and more platforms - this year Apple equipped its laptops with ARM processors, which are used to use only for smartphones and tablets. Therefore, developers must take into account all existing technical possibilities and write applications so that they work everywhere.

Employers want to view portfolios on GitHub. If earlier, when hiring an employee, employers looked at applications in which the programmer had a hand, but now even non-professionals are increasingly wanting to see the code. On Github, you can see all the projects of the developer, see how he thinks and writes, and how he developed and grew.

Photo: Artur Lebedev / TASS, fizkes / Shutterstock

Programming is getting younger. Children and teenagers learn programming in online courses or on their own. Because of this, already at the age of 13-15 they can write applications, upload them to the Appstore or GooglePlay, and even earn money. Some of them start their careers as developers this way and compete with university graduates and older colleagues.

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